Henry Ford once said: “If I had asked people what they want, they would have said “faster horses”.”
Applied to cities:
The transfer to smartness is the satisfaction of needs – not the optimizing of a single subsystem. Stakeholders need to find solutions to bridge segments and areas of responsibility. Today however they are not used to this new form of partnering. Companies are reluctant to relinquish their competitive advantage and share their insights. Furthermore, they are often not set up internally to address holistic requirements from such new customers as a city.